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Chemical and Petrochemical Industries

Known as “the industry of industries” for serving the most varied segments of the economy, the chemical sector traditionally advances, on average, 25% above the Brazilian Gross National Product (GNP).

Petrochemicals are part of the chemical industry. In general, it is understood that the petrochemical activity begins with the production
of ethylene and its co-products, as well as other derivatives of naphtha or natural gas, for industrial purposes.

The main raw material used in the petrochemical industry is naphtha, chemical industry uses many raw materials, organic and inorganic. Naphtha is basic stuff for a number of products, which are called petrochemicals, precisely because they are made from naphtha (or natural gas) and consequently oil.

The chemical industry provides raw material for almost all other industries. It is difficult to imagine any consumer product in which the chemical industry is not present in any way.

The position of the Brazilian chemical industry in the ranking of the global chemical industry in terms of net sales is among the ten largest in the world.

Mining

Mining corresponds to an economic and industrial activity that consists of research, exploration, ploughing (extraction) and processing of ores present in the subsoil. This activity is largely responsible for the current configuration of the society in which we live, since several products and resources used by us come from this activity, such as computers, cosmetics, roads, metallic structures, among
others.
Thus, it is possible to say that mining is essential for socioeconomic development. Brazil is considered one of the countries with the highest mineral potential in the world. The mining sector represents 4.2% of the Gross National Product of the country and about 20% of Brazilian exports, according to the Ministry of Mines and Energy. It is scheduled for Brazil, through the National Mining Plan 2030, issued by the same Ministry, to be invested in mineral exploration, mining and mineral processing, about $ 270 billion by the year 2030.

Metallurgical

Metallurgy is the science that studies and manages the metal since its extraction from underground until its transformation into products of suitable use. Metallurgy designates a set of procedures and techniques for extraction, production, treatment and casting of metals and alloys.

From early on, man used metals for making tools, materials such as copper, lead, bronze, iron, gold and silver were widely used in
antiquity.

The first blast furnaces appeared in the thirteenth century. The metallurgical industry had new impetus in the eighteenth century with the industrial revolution.

Thermoelectric power plants

Thermoelectric plant is an industrial facility used to generate electric energy from the energy released by any product that can generate heat, such as bagasse from various types of plants, wood scraps, fuel oil, diesel oil, natural gas, enriched uranium and natural coal. Just as in hydroelectric energy, in which a generator, driven by water, rotates, transforming potential energy into electrical energy, in thermoelectric plants the heat source heats a boiler with water, generating water vapor at high pressure, and the steam moves the turbine blades of the generator.

The first thermoelectric plant in Brazil was inaugurated in 1883 in Campos dos Goytacazes, with the power of 52 kW. The largest thermal power plant coal from the Brazil is the Jorge Lacerda Thermoelectric Complex in Santa Catarina and one of the largest natural gas power plants the country is the Parnaíba Thermoelectric Complex in Maranhão, with 1.4 GW of installed capacity.

Pulp and Paper Plants

The institution that serves for the fabrication and manufacture of different types of paper is called the pulp and paper industry. This fabrication starts from the transformation of the material obtained from the trees into cellulose and, then, becomes sheets of paper that are used in common writing. The paper industries are large factories, as the process and manufacture of paper require different work points. Paper is produced almost entirely from organic materials such as the pulp itself, in addition to other textile and vegetable elements that are used to give color and texture. But in addition, the paper production lines work with chemicals to whiten and smooth the final paper.

The data and expectations for the pulp and paper industry are encouraging in Brazil. The growth and consolidation of this industry means not only expanding and strengthening of factories, as well as the building up of an entire sector that creates jobs, raw material demand and increasingly new technologies of production, control and monitoring.

Fertilizer Industries

The fertilizer industry is basically intended for the production and sale of supplements to the mineral nutrients found in the soil, which are essential for the growth and development of plants, which act on the growth of vegetables together with sunlight, carbon dioxide and water. Fertilizer production is directly linked to agricultural production, and to the availability of Basic Raw Materials produced at economically viable costs.

Fertilizer industry is one of the world’s fastest growing sectors, and in Brazil, the consistent growth surpassed the rest of the world in recent years.

Ceramics Industries

Pottery is one of artifacts production activity from clay, which becomes very plastic and easy to shape when wet. After subjected to drying to remove most of the water, the molded part is subjected to high temperatures around 1,000 degrees Celsius, which give it rigidity and strength by the fusion of certain components of the mass, and in some cases the fixing enamel surface.

These properties allowed the ceramics to be used in the construction of homes, containers for domestic use and storage of food, wines, oils, perfumes, in the construction of funerary urns and even “paper” for writing.

The ceramic can be an artistic activity, in which artifacts are produced with aesthetic value, or an industrial activity in which artifacts are produced for use in construction and engineering.

Today, in addition to its use as a raw material constituent of various household tools, civil construction and plastic material in the hands of artists, ceramics is also used in state of the art technology, specifically in the manufacture of space rocket components, precisely because of its durability.

Ceramic Industry today can be divided into sectors that have very individual characteristics and distinct levels of technological advancement.

Steel Casting and Cast Iron

In metallurgy, casting is the process of placing molten metal into a mold containing a cavity with the desired shape, and then allowing to cool and solidify. The solidified part is known as the casting, which is taken from the mold or the mold is broken to complete the process. Casting is most often used to make complex parts that would be difficult or more expensive to make by other methods. The casting processes have been known for thousands of years, and widely used in sculptures, especially in bronze,precious metal jewelry, weapons and tools.

Industries Cement and Lime

The cement industry requires large investments and is subject to cost pressures. With regard to the direct costs, the cost of fuel and electricity represent more than 50% in the formation of direct production cost of a cement plant. The cement is present in all kinds of work, from the simplest to the most complex, from beginning to end thereof and being a product of low value / weight is quite burdened for shipping, distribution, suffering the impact with fuel and other petroleum products increases. The estimated installed capacity of the country now exceeds 100 million tons per year. The lime is one of the most versatile natural products, its first uses are dated at prehistory, in building pyramids, especially churches and homes. One of its main functions is the binder, or the alloy into the mass, acting as a sort of glue. However, its use is now highly diversified, ranging from segment to segment.